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Figure 1: Spaceflight is a stressful environment with various stressors acting through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis. Increases in stress hormones, such as cortisol from the adrenal glands, result in reductions in cellular immunity, which facilitates opportunistic viral reactivation. Source: Rooney BV, Crucian BE, Pierson DL, Laudenslager ML, Mehta SK. Herpes virus reactivation in astronauts during spaceflight and its application on earth. Front Microbiol 2019; 10: 16 (Open Source: Reprinted with permission)

Figure 1: Spaceflight is a stressful environment with various stressors acting through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axis. Increases in stress hormones, such as cortisol from the adrenal glands, result in reductions in cellular immunity, which facilitates opportunistic viral reactivation. Source: Rooney BV, Crucian BE, Pierson DL, Laudenslager ML, Mehta SK. Herpes virus reactivation in astronauts during spaceflight and its application on earth. <i>Front Microbiol</i> 2019; 10: 16 (Open Source: Reprinted with permission)