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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2000| October-December  | Volume 48 | Issue 4  
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Neurological syndromes following organophosphate poisoning.
S Singh, N Sharma
October-December 2000, 48(4):308-13
Organophosphorous compounds, the anticholinesterases, produce significant morbidity and mortality in India. Although exact estimates are not available, hospital based statistics suggest that nearly half of the admissions to emergency with acute poisoning are due to organophosphates. Following accidental or suicidal exposure, these anticholinesterases lead to three well defined neurological syndromes i.e. initial life threatening acute cholinergic crisis which often requires management in intensive care unit, intermediate syndrome in which cranial nerve palsies, proximal muscle weakness and respiratory muscle weakness are common and patients often require respiratory support and delayed organophosphate induced polyneuropathy. In addition to these three classical neurological syndromes following acute exposure and in some following low dose chronic exposure, several neurobehavioural changes have been observed and these have been termed together as 'chronic organophosphate induced neuropsychiatric disorders' (COPIND). Organo-phosphate compounds produce significant pesticide related illness in developing countries. There is, thus, a need to determine exact extent of the problem and to develop appropriate strategies to manage these cases with available resources in these countries.
  46 77,794 2,199
Risk of recurrence of seizures following single unprovoked idiopathic seizure.
CP Das, IM Sawhney, V Lal, S Prabhakar
October-December 2000, 48(4):357-60
A prospective study was conducted to look for various factors that could predict the risk of recurrence of a single unprovoked idiopathic seizure. Seventy six patients with a history of single episode of seizure ultimately completed the study and the data regarding age, sex, duration of seizure, time of occurrence of the ictus, interval between onset and referral, family history of seizure and alcohol consumption were analysed. All patients of symptomatic epilepsy and those with an abnormal scan were excluded. The patients were randomized into two groups, one of which received anti epileptic medication and the other did not. All patients underwent electroencephalography (EEG). Twenty two (M=16, F=6) of the 76 patients (M=56, F=20) had a recurrence of seizure. The duration of seizure at initial presentation was 10.1 +/- 5.2 min. in the recurrence group and 6.5 +/- 4.1 min. in the non-recurrence group. Twelve of the 16 patients with an abnormal EEG had a recurrence whereas only 10 of the 60 patients with a normal EEG had a recurrence (p <0.001). Of the treated cases (n=36), only 4 had a recurrence compared to 18 of the untreated cases (n=40) (p <0.002). Eighteen of the 22 cases having a recurrence did so within three months. Six of the cases with family history of seizure (n=10) had a recurrence, whereas only 16 of the cases without family history of seizure (n=16) had a recurrence (p <0.05). Patients of a single unprovoked idiopathic seizure with a normal CT scan are less likely to have a recurrence if the duration of seizure at presentation is short, EEG is normal, more than 3 months have passed since the first seizure and if treatment has been started. Family history of seizures does have a moderately significant bearing, but alcohol intake does not increase the chances of seizure.
  25 22,559 429
CSF ascites : a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery.
B Chidambaram, V Balasubramaniam
October-December 2000, 48(4):378-80
CSF ascites is a very rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt procedure. No definite explanation has been offered for the inability of the peritoneum to absorb the CSF. Two children who underwent VP shunting for hydrocephalus, presented with ascites 3 (1/2) years and 4 months respectively, after the shunt was placed. The treatment of choice is conversion of the VP shunt to a ventriculoatrial shunt.
  23 26,604 354
Percutaneous trigeminal ganglion balloon compression : experience in 40 patients.
M Natarajan
October-December 2000, 48(4):330-2
Forty patients of trigeminal neuralgia were treated with percutaneous trigeminal ganglion balloon compression. Symptoms had been present since six months to twenty years. The age ranged between 23 years and 73 years. All the patients had immediate relief from pain. Two had already undergone trigeminal cistern rhizolysis. One patient had foramen ovale stenosis. After the procedure, all the patients had mild to moderate degree of ipsilateral facial sensory loss which included buccal mucosa and anterior 2/3rd of the tongue. Facial dysaesthesia (anaesthesia dolorosa) was seen in only one case, who had mild involvement lasting one week. Thirty patients had altered taste sensation, probably due to general somatic sensory loss. Five patients had herpes perioralis. In this study group, two patients had already undergone microvascular decompression. All the patients were followed for a period ranging from one to eighteen months. Balloon compression technique seems to be better than injection of alcohol, glycerol or radio frequency lesion. Recurrence of pain was noted in 3 patients after one year.
  16 16,515 291
Pathological laughter as heralding manifestation of left middle cerebral artery territory infarct : case report and review of literature.
RK Garg, S Misra, R Verma
October-December 2000, 48(4):388-90
Clinical, radiological and pathological studies in patients with stroke, presenting with pathological laughter as heralding manifestation, have shown lesions in the internal capsule and thalamus, basal ganglion, hypothalamus and ventral pons. In this report a patient with similar manifestation and having a cortical infarct in the territory supplied by superior division of middle cerebral artery is being presented. Our case suggests possible influence of dominant cerebral hemisphere, especially of Broca's area, on the motor control of laughter.
  15 11,852 176
Comparison of efficacy and side effects of epidural tramadol and morphine in patients undergoing laminectomy : a repeated dose study.
LN Yaddanapudi, J Wig, B Singh, MK Tewari
October-December 2000, 48(4):398-400
Tramadol acts through multiple mechanisms and has a low risk of post operative respiratory depression. We compared the efficacy of epidural tramadol with that of morphine for postoperative analgesia in these patients. The demographic data and the summed pain intensity difference scores (SPID) were similar in both the groups. The time to first supplementary dose was significantly shorter in the tramadol group compared to the morphine group (p<0.05). No patient in either group suffered respiratory depression.
  14 13,548 272
Neurocysticercosis presenting as stroke.
S Jha, V Kumar
October-December 2000, 48(4):391-4
Stroke is a common but under recognized complication of neurocysticercosis (NCC). We report six patients having NCC who presented with stroke. All patients were young with no vascular risk factors. The arteritis which resulted in ischaemic infarct in these patients was related to the presence and severity of arachnoiditis. All patients responded well to steroids and albendazole therapy with minimal residual deficit.
  11 7,449 216
Omental transplantation for Alzheimer's disease.
H Rafael, R Mego, P Moromizato, M Espinoza
October-December 2000, 48(4):319-21
The acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin and other neurotransmitters may be reduced in the subcommissural regions even in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease(AD), due to hypoperfusion of the anterior perforating and anterior choroidal arteries. This hypothesis was confirmed after the transplant of omental tissue on the optic chiasma, carotid crotch and anterior perforated space in a woman with moderate AD. Neurological improvement was better in the first week after the surgery than in the following months.
  11 9,116 147
B12 and folate deficiency : incidence and clinical features.
RS Wadia, S Bandishti, M Kharche
October-December 2000, 48(4):302-4
  11 23,526 519
Co-existence of dual intracranial pathology clinical relevance of proton MRS.
RP Tripathi, A Gupta, S Gupta, SS Kumaran, S Khushu, A Dev, Balwant
October-December 2000, 48(4):365-9
The co-existence of neuro-cysticercosis (NCC) and intracranial neoplasm in an individual is a rare entity. Atypical presentation of cerebral cysticercosis may mimic glioma, metastasis, cerebral abscess or vice versa. The dual existence of these two lesions have led to several postulates which may have clinical impact in due course of time i.e. NCC as an oncogenetic factor for glioma or similarity of antigen found in glioma and NCC etc. An adequate management of such cases poses a challenge to both imageologists as well as clinicians. Thus, a proper diagnostic evaluation is essential for successful management of such cases. MR spectroscopy (MRS), although still a clinical research tool, may be extremely useful for exclusion or confirmation of neoplastic lesions in such a clinical scenario. The findings of MRS in collaboration with imaging parameters may increase the diagnostic yield of a MR investigation. The authors encountered five cases of dual intracranial pathologies i.e. neurocysticercosis and glioma. MR spectroscopy was useful to arrive at a definitive diagnosis in such a situation.
  10 8,316 149
Atypical meningioma : a clinicopathological analysis.
E Joseph, S Sandhyamani, MB Rao, S Nair, VV Radhakrishnan
October-December 2000, 48(4):338-42
In this retrospective study, 382 operated cases of meningiomas were reviewed. 32 cases (8.3%) were histopathologically classified as atypical meningioma. The anatomical locations and histological features in all the thirty-two cases were correlated with their recurrence rates and biological behaviour. The overall recurrence rate for atypical meningioma within two years was 28% as compared to 9.3% in benign meningiomas. It is being emphasized that an accurate histopathological interpretation of atypical meningioma is essential for predicting the recurrence, biological behavior as well as post-operative management modalities.
  10 15,258 311
Suprasellar malignant mixed germ cell tumour presenting as craniopharyngioma.
R Nada, H Mohan, SP Dhir, KK Mukherjee, VK Kak
October-December 2000, 48(4):381-4
A 15 year old boy presented with diminution in vision of both eyes, diabetes insipidus and hypopituitarism. MRI was suggestive of a large suprasellar and retrosellar craniopharyngioma with stretching of the optic chiasma. Histopathological findings on the first surgical specimen were interpreted as a craniopharyngioma. He was reoperated on account of clinical deterioration and increase in tumour size. Histological examination this time revealed derivatives of all three germ cell lineages along with areas of embryonal carcinoma, and yolk sac tumour besides squamous cysts, establishing the diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumour. Serum and CSF were strongly positive for alpha foetoproteins.
  8 8,559 210
A study of myasthenia gravis in patients with and without thymoma.
A Roy, J Kalita, UK Misra, D Kar, A Agarwal, SK Misra
October-December 2000, 48(4):343-6
This study was undertaken to compare the clinical, neurophysiological, radiological and prognostic features of myasthenia gravis with and without thymoma. 37 patients with myasthenia gravis (27 males, 10 females), with age range of 4.5 to 72 (mean 39) years, were managed at a tertiary care centre in India. Four patients were below 15 years of age and 6 above 55 years. Most of the patients were in stage II (34). There were 2 patients in stage III and 1 in stage I. 27 patients underwent thymectomy. Thymoma was detected in 10 cases. The decrement in patients with thymoma ranged between 11 and 62% (mean 27.9%) and nonthymoma group 10-75% (mean 28%). CT scan of thorax revealed mediastinal mass in 5 out of 10 cases of thymoma and 2 out of 27 patients without thymoma. Outcome of myasthenia gravis with thymoma was worse than without thymoma at 1 year followup. Severity of illness, extent of decrement, lack of facilitation, duration of illness and age of the patients were not related to the outcome. It is concluded the clinical and neurophysiological changes in myasthenia gravis with and without thymoma do not differ. However, patients with thymoma have a worse outcome.
  7 10,947 346
The Babinski sign--a reappraisal.
SP Kumar, D Ramasubramanian
October-December 2000, 48(4):314-8
In 1896, Joseph Babinski, a French neurologist, first described the best known neurologic eponym 'the Babinski sign'. This sign is characterised by dorsiflexion of the big toe and recruitment of the extensor hallucis longus muscle, on stimulating the sole of the foot. He has emphasised from the outset, the intimate relationship between this sign and the shortening movement in other leg muscles, which form the flexion synergy of the lower limb. The Babinski sign is not a new reflex, rather it is released as a result of breakdown of the harmonious integration of the flexion and extension components of the normal defence reflex mechanism, due to pyramidal tract dysfunction. A pathological Babinski sign should be clearly distinguished from upgoing toes that may not always be a part of the flexion synergy. This article reviews the Babinski sign in detail, focusing on the historical perspectives, role of pyramidal tract dysfunction and art of elicitation and interpretation. The significance of assessing this phenomenon in the entire leg, and the clinical clues that will help to dispel the myths regarding the Babinski sign, have been emphasised.
  7 97,934 1,806
'Face of the giant panda' sign in Wilson's disease : revisited.
A Kuruvilla, S Joseph
October-December 2000, 48(4):395-6
We report a patient, with Wilson's disease, who showed the characteristic radiological sign known as 'Face of the giant panda sign' on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain.
  7 24,273 630
Profile of intractable epilepsy in a tertiary referral center.
JP Singhvi, IM Sawhney, V Lal, A Pathak, S Prabhakar
October-December 2000, 48(4):351-6
This study was undertaken to find out the profile of intractable epilepsy (IE) in a tertiary referral centre. 100 patients (males 67; females 33) with IE attending the epilepsy clinic were evaluated. Detailed history, examination, investigations like EEG and CT scan and details regarding pharmacotherapy were analysed. The age of the patients ranged from 5 to 70 yrs (mean=23.2 yrs). Mean duration of seizures was 11.44 years. Commonest seizure type was partial seizures (74%). Amongst patients with generalised seizures (26%), 14% had multiple seizure types. The seizure frequency was 12.39 +/- 21.57 (mean +/- SD) per month. Fifty seven patients were in the symptomatic group with CNS infections being the leading cause (19%) of epilepsy. Fifty patients had one or more abnormal predictors of IE. There was no difference in the severity of epilepsy in patients with no abnormal feature when compared with patients having abnormal features. EEG was abnormal in 69% cases with background abnormality in 20% and focal abnormality in 36% cases. CT scan was abnormal in 41% cases with commonest abnormality being neurocysticercosis (11%) followed by gliosis (9%) and chronic infarct (9%). Sixty patients were receiving a combination of two drugs, 32 patients 3 drugs and 8 patients were on 4 drugs. There was no difference in seizure control in patients who were on 2 drugs or more than 2 drugs. Partial seizures were the commonest seizure type leading to IE; CNS infection being the leading aetiological factor. The presence or absence of predictors of intractability does not predict severity of epilepsy. Addition of third primary drug to existing combination only increases adverse effects without better control of seizures.
  7 7,220 281
Sporadic paroxysmal exercise induced dystonia : report of a case and review of the literature.
KB Bhattacharyya, S Basu, AD Ray, S Bhattacharya
October-December 2000, 48(4):401-2
Sporadic paroxysmal exercise induced dystonia (PEID) is a rare condition. So far only fifteen cases have been reported in the world literature. It is characterised by dystonic posture on prolonged exercise, which gets relieved with rest. In general, these are refractory to medical treatment. We report one such case, along with review of the literature. The lower limbs were spared and only right shoulder was tucked up with the head turning to right side. The duration of exercise necessary to bring out the dystonic posture gradually diminished with time, a feature not reported previously.
  6 9,854 195
Primary fibrosarcoma of brain.
DK Vatsal, S Sharma, PN Renjen, S Kaul, AN Jha
October-December 2000, 48(4):396-8
This is a case presentation of a young patient with an intracranial space-occupying lesion following multiple episodes of generalised tonic clonic seizures for the last 20 years. Such a long latency period between the onset of fits and the discovery of an intracranial lesion is highly unusual in malignant brain tumours. This lesion was excised completely and proved to be a primary lesion of the brain - fibrosarcoma. These rare tumours of mesenchymal origin in the central nervous system are very rare.
  5 8,188 153
Preoperative shunts in thalamic tumours.
A Goel
October-December 2000, 48(4):347-50
Thirty one patients with thalamic glioma underwent a pre-tumour resection shunt surgery. The procedure was uneventful in 23 patients with relief from symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Eight patients worsened after the procedure. The level of sensorium worsened from excessively drowsy state to unconsciousness in seven patients. Three patients developed hemiparesis, 4 developed paresis of extra-ocular muscles and altered pupillary reflexes, and 1 developed incontinence of urine and persistent vomiting. Alteration in the delicately balanced intracranial pressure and movements in the tumour and vital adjacent brain areas could be the probable cause of the worsening in the neurological state in these 8 patients. On the basis of these observations and on review of literature, it is postulated that the ventricular dilatation following an obstruction in the path of the cerebrospinal fluid flow by a tumour could be a natural defense phenomenon of the brain.
  5 5,488 126
Bilateral fronto-orbito-zygomatic craniotomy--a combined extended frontal and orbitozygomatic approach.
SK Gupta, VK Khosla, BS Sharma
October-December 2000, 48(4):361-4
In extensive skull base lesions involving the spheno-ethmoido-clival region and extending into both the cavernous sinuses and infratemporal regions, a combination of approaches is usually required, either in the same operation or at a second stage. The bilateral fronto-orbito-zygomatic craniotomy described in this report is a combination of an extended frontal approach and fronto-orbito-zygomatic craniotomy. This gives a wide exposure of the spheno-ethmoido-clival regions of both the cavernous sinuses and both the infratemporal regions. The exposure is thus greatly improved with minimal frontal lobe retraction. The single bone piece can be speedily replaced obviating the need for a complicated reconstruction technique and gives a superior cosmetic result. The operative technique is described in detail.
  5 10,567 245
Facial nerve neurinoma presenting as middle cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle mass : a case report.
BI Devi, M Panigrahi, VK Jaiswal, DI Bhat, S Das, B Das
October-December 2000, 48(4):385-7
Facial nerve neurinomas are rare. The tumours arising from the geniculate ganglion may grow anteriorly and superiorly and present as a mass in the middle cranial fossa. Only a few cases of facial nerve neurinomas presenting as middle cranial fossa mass have so far been reported. These tumours present with either long standing or intermittent facial palsy along with cerebellopontine angle syndrome.
  5 9,734 159
Infected Ewing's sarcoma of spine.
R Kumar, KK Prasad, N Krishnani, DK Chhabra
October-December 2000, 48(4):370-3
An unusual case of extradural, intraspinal Ewing's sarcoma with significant extraspinal extension is reported. In view of associated constitutional symptoms, suggestive signs, leucocytosis, elevated ESR and operative findings, the initial diagnosis of Pott's spine was entertained. The lesion however turned out to be infected Ewing's sarcoma on histopathology and bacteriological examination.
  4 9,573 163
Pathology of cerebrovascular disease.
AK Banerjee
October-December 2000, 48(4):305-7
  4 9,972 263
Money matters in epilepsy.
SV Thomas
October-December 2000, 48(4):322-9
Cost of epilepsy care has escalated many folds in the recent past. The high cost of newer anti epileptic drugs, cost of elaborate presurgical evaluation and surgery account for a large component of direct medical cost. Indirect cost to the society, through lost productivity or premature death, is many times more than the direct cost. The newer drugs have an advantage over the conventional drugs in terms of tolerability, safety and ease of administration. The benefits in terms of better control of seizures and improvement in quality of life offered by these newer strategies in treatment of epilepsy need to be considered along with the increase in cost. Careful economic evaluation is essential to assess ultimate utility of these interventions in the management of epilepsy at large. Unfortunately, there is little data on this aspect for the physician to apply in his practice. The general principles of economic appraisal of epilepsy and some of the key works in this field are discussed in this paper. The increase in cost due to newer anti epileptic drugs in the treatment of unselected population of patients (mild and severe epilepsy) may not be adequately justified by gains in seizure control. On the other hand newer drugs may have a clear superiority in selected situations such as intractable seizures. The high initial cost of presurgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery may be offset by gains in increased number of quality adjusted life years.
  3 9,223 347
Clinically and biochemically silent thyrotroph adenoma with oncocytic change.
AK Banerjee, BS Sharma, VK Kak
October-December 2000, 48(4):374-7
A case of clinically and biochemically silent pituitary tumour with ultrastructural and immunohistochemical evidence of thyroid stimulating hormone secretion is presented. Significance of recognition of such silent tumours is discussed.
  2 7,411 102
Carbamazepine induced bradycardia.
S Kaul, AK Meena, JM Murthy
October-December 2000, 48(4):403-4
  2 9,224 188
Dystrophic calcification in adult dermatomyositis : neuroimage.
SS Jayalakshmi, R Borgohain, S Mohandas
October-December 2000, 48(4):407-407
  1 6,348 155
A case of foot dystonia with peripheral lesion.
J Roy, K Mitra, PK Gangopadhyay, S Das, T Roy, B Maity
October-December 2000, 48(4):404-5
  - 7,427 144
Cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration--a frequently undetected syndrome.
KS Anand, A Biswas, A Prasad
October-December 2000, 48(4):405-6
  - 20,778 235
Clinical features of cardioembolic strokes identified by transesophageal echocardiography.
S Kaul, SJ Kittner, MA Woznaik, MA Sloan, M Corretti, JR Hebel, TR Price
October-December 2000, 48(4):333-7
Clinical and CT scan features predictive of a cardiac source of embolism (CSOE) are helpful in planning appropriate investigations in ischaemic strokes. The currently described predictors of CSOE were determined before the availability of trans esophageal echocardiography (TEE). After the advent of TEE, many new CSOE were discovered. The present study was planned to investigate if the previously described predictors of CSOE are also valid for patients with CSOE detectable only with TEE (TEE-detected CSOE). From 1992-1995, 485 consecutive patients of ischemic stroke were enrolled in the Maryland Stroke Data Bank (MSDB). Patients with CSOE identified only by TEE and not by clinical, electrocardiographic or transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) examination were compared to patients with a CSOE with respect to the features of the history, neurologic examination and CT scan. Of 485 patients with cerebral infarction, 132 (27%) patients had CSOE. In 21/132 (16%), diagnosis of high risk CSOE could be established only by TEE. The most discriminating clinical findings in TEE-detected CSOE patients were visual field deficit (OR 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1-7.4) and neglect (OR 3.4; 95% CI,1.2-9.3). Less strong associations were also found with other clinical features described previously for CSOE. No significant differences were found for features of the initial CT scan. In summary, presence of visual field defect and hemineglect may suggest a higher likelihood of finding a CSOE by TEE, even if the clinical cardiac examination and TTE are normal.
  - 6,530 156
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