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|Year : 2021 | Volume
| Issue : 6 | Page : 1899-1900
Transaxonal Spread of Varicella-Zoster Virus in Trigeminal Zoster Followed by Ramsay Hunt Syndrome
Shi-Lin Yang1, Xiang Han1, Guo-Dong Wang2
1 Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, China
2 Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai General Hospital (Originally Shanghai First People's Hospital), Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China
|Date of Submission||10-Aug-2018|
|Date of Decision||08-Apr-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||18-Aug-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||23-Dec-2021|
Dr. Guo-Dong Wang
Department of Neurology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai General Hospital (Originally Shanghai First People's Hospital), Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Yang SL, Han X, Wang GD. Transaxonal Spread of Varicella-Zoster Virus in Trigeminal Zoster Followed by Ramsay Hunt Syndrome. Neurol India 2021;69:1899-900
A 60-year-old immunocompetent man presented with severe stabbing right facial pain for five days and herpes on the right face for one day. He was diagnosed with trigeminal zoster and administered with intravenous acyclovir and steroids. He developed right otalgia, vesicular rash on the concha of the right earlobe and right peripheral facial palsy after two weeks, and the diagnosis of Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) was made. Brain MRI demonstrated fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity involving the right lateral pons [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b, right lateral medulla [Figure 1]c and [Figure 1]d, and right trigeminal nerve [Figure 1]b. These lesions also showed increased diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) signal [Figure 1]e,[Figure 1]f,[Figure 1]g,[Figure 1]h. Gadolinium enhancement was seen in the pontine lesion [Figure 1]i. The extent of the lesion in the level of the pons is illustrated in [Figure 1]j, indicating the involvement of the trigeminal nerve, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and tract, along with the facial nucleus and nerve fibers. He had mild facial asymmetry as a sequel after the treatment of intravenous acyclovir and steroids for 2 weeks.
|Figure 1: MRI findings of the patient. Brain MRI demonstrated FLAIR hyperintensity involving the right lateral pons (a and b), right lateral medulla (c and d), and right trigeminal nerve (b). (e-h) These lesions also showed an increased DWI signal. (i) Gadolinium enhancement was seen in the pontine lesion. (j) The extent of the lesion (dark triangle) indicates the involvement of the trigeminal nerve, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and tract (yellow), along with the facial nucleus (blue) and nerve fibers|
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T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities in the pons and/or medulla has been occasionally reported in trigeminal zoster or RHS.,, however, increased DWI signal is rare and easily misdiagnosed with acute infarction. Varicella-Zoster Virus is a pathogen that can invade both central and peripheral nervous systems. The sequential development of trigeminal zoster and RHS and the well-defined lesion revealed by MRI in the presenting case might reflect transaxonal spreading of Varicella-Zoster Virus from Gasserian ganglion to spinal trigeminal nucleus and tract, facial nucleus and nerve fibers.
Declaration of patient consent
The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.
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Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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