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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 69  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 670--675

Borderzone Infarction and Small Vessel Disease in a Sample of Egyptian Stroke Patients: Differences and Similarities


1 Department Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2 Department Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nevine M El Nahas
Department Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo
Egypt
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.317238

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Background: The anatomical location of white matter hyperintense lesions in small vessel disease are apparently similar to those of borderzone infarction. The objective of this study is to find clinical and radiological points of differentiation between the two vascular disorders in a sample of Egyptian patients which might have an impact on primary and secondary prevention. Methods: Ischemic stroke patients with white matter lesions were categorized into two groups: small vessel disease and borderzone infarctions. NIHSS was done on admission. Risk factor profile was reported, and investigations done including: HbA1C, lipid profile, CRP, ECG, echocardiography, carotid duplex, brain MRI, MRA and MR perfusion study. Results: 46 patients completed the study, 29 with SVD and 17 with BZI. Smoking, hypertension and recurrent stroke were more common in borderzone infarctions, but only diabetes was significantly higher (p = 0.047). Limb shaking was more observed in borderzone infarctions (p = 0.049). Radiologically: lacunar pattern was observed more in small vessel disease, while rosary pattern was more in borderzone infarctions (p = 0.04). FLAIR symmetrical lesions and microbleeds were more significant in small vessel disease (p = <0.001; 0.048, respectively). Perfusion study time to peak denoted evidence of significant hypoperfusion in all regions of interest in borderzone infarctions. Conclusion: Limb shaking, retinal claudication or syncope, with MRI showing rosary pattern of white matter hyperintensity, few microbleeds and markedly impaired perfusion favor the diagnosis of borderzone infarctions. On the other hand, presence of lacunae, FLAIR showing symmetrical WMH and microbleeds with minimal or no perfusion deficit suggests the diagnosis of small vessel disease.






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