Atormac
briv
Neurology India
menu-bar5 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus
  Users online: 2036  
 Home | Login 
About Editorial board Articlesmenu-bullet NSI Publicationsmenu-bullet Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Videos Etcetera Contact
  Navigate Here 
 »   Next article
 »   Previous article
 »   Table of Contents

 Resource Links
 »   Similar in PUBMED
 »  Search Pubmed for
 »  Search in Google Scholar for
 »Related articles
 »   Citation Manager
 »   Access Statistics
 »   Reader Comments
 »   Email Alert *
 »   Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1222    
    Printed10    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded39    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

 

 REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 69  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 260--271

Neuroimaging Patterns in Patients with COVID-19-Associated Neurological Complications: A Review


1 Department of Neurology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rae Bareli Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ravindra K Garg
Department of Neurology, King George Medical University, Lucknow - 226 003, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.314531

Rights and Permissions

Background: A variety of neuroimaging abnormalities in COVID-19 have been described. Objectives: In this article, we reviewed the varied neuroimaging patterns in patients with COVID-19-associated neurological complications. Methods: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus and preprint databases (medRxiv and bioRxiv). The search terms we used were “COVID -19 and encephalitis, encephalopathy, neuroimaging or neuroradiology” and “SARS-CoV-2 and encephalitis, encephalopathy, neuroimaging or neuroradiology”. Results: Neuroimaging abnormalities are common in old age and patients with comorbidities. Neuroimaging abnormalities are largely vascular in origin. COVID-19-associated coagulopathy results in large vessel occlusion and cerebral venous thrombosis. COVID-19-associated intracerebral hemorrhage resembles anticoagulant associated intracerebral hemorrhage. On neuroimaging, hypoxic-ischemic damage along with hyperimmune reaction against the SARS-COV-2 virus manifests as small vessel disease. Small vessel disease appears as diffuse leukoencephalopathy and widespread microbleeds, and subcortical white matter hyperintensities. Occasionally, gray matter hyperintensity, similar to those observed seen in autoimmune encephalitis, has been noted. In many cases, white matter lesions similar to that in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis have been described. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in COVID-19 seems to be a parainfectious event and autoimmune in origin. Many cases of acute necrotizing encephalitis resulting in extensive damage to thalamus and brain stem have been described; cytokine storm has been considered a pathogenic mechanism behind this. None of the neuroimaging abnormalities can provide a clue to the possible pathogenic mechanism. Conclusions: Periventricular white-matter MR hyperintensity, microbleeds, arterial and venous infarcts, and hemorrhages are apparently distinctive neuroimaging abnormalities in patients with COVID-19.






[FULL TEXT] [PDF]*


        
Print this article     Email this article

Online since 20th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow