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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 69  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 66--74

Deep Neural Network-based Handheld Diagnosis System for Autism Spectrum Disorder


1 I.K.G. Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala; CT Institute of Engineering, Management and Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
2 I.K.G. Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala; Khalsa College of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Vikas Khullar
CT Institute of Engineering, Management and Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.310069

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Objective: The aim of the present work was to propose and implement deep neural network (DNN)-based handheld diagnosis system for more accurate diagnosis and severity assessment of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods: Initially, the learning of the proposed system for ASD diagnosis was performed by implementing DNN algorithms such as a convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM), and multilayer perceptron (MLP) with DSM-V based acquired dataset. The performance of the DNN algorithms was analyzed based on parameters viz. accuracy, loss, mean squared error (MSE), precision, recall, and area under the curve (AUC) during the training and validation process. Later, the optimum DNN algorithm, among the tested algorithms, was implemented on handheld diagnosis system (HDS) and the performance of HDS was analyzed. The stability of proposed DNN-based HDS was validated with the dataset group of 20 ASD and 20 typically developed (TD) individuals. Results: It was observed during comparative analysis that LSTM resulted better in ASD diagnosis as compared to other artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms such as CNN and MLP since LSTM showed stabilized results achieving maximum accuracy in less consumption of epochs with minimum MSE and loss. Further, the LSTM based proposed HDS for ASD achieved optimum results with 100% accuracy in reference to DSM-V, which was validated statistically using a group of ASD and TD individuals. Conclusion: The use of advanced AI algorithms could play an important role in the diagnosis of ASD in today's era. Since the proposed LSTM based HDS for ASD and determination of its severity provided accurate results with maximum accuracy with reference to DSM-V criteria, the proposed HDS could be the best alternative to the manual diagnosis system for diagnosis of ASD.






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