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 ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1313--1320

Frontotemporal Branch of the Facial Nerve and Fascial Layers in the Temporal Region: A Cadaveric Study to Define a Safe Dissection Plane


1 Department of Neurosurgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Anatomy, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sunil K Gupta
Department of Neurosurgery, PGIMER, Chandigarh 160012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.304113

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Background: Anatomy of the temporal region is complex with controversy over the relationship of fascial planes with the upper division of the facial nerve. Objective: This study aimed to identify the safe surgical landmarks to preserve the frontotemporal branch of the facial nerve during surgery and define the safest approach for surgical procedures in this region. Material and Methods: The anatomical relationship of the frontal branch of the facial nerve, superficial temporal artery (STA), fascial planes, and fat pads was determined after dissection on 10 cadaveric heads, that is (20 sides) Dissection was performed layer by layer from skin to bone. Results: The temporoparietal fascia was made up of multiple (3–4) layers above the zygomatic arch and these layers were integrated with thin fibrous septa. The frontotemporal branch of the facial nerve (FTFN) was observed in a deeper part of temporoparietal fascia and superficial fat pad. The frontotemporal branch of the facial nerve (FTFN) crossed the zygomatic arch as two branches in 25%, as three branches in 65% and as four branches in 10% of specimens. Conclusions: Interfascial dissection between two layers of deep temporal fascia through the intermediate fat pad is superior to other approaches because of the lack of facial nerve branches in this plane. The Intermediate fat could be easily separated from deep layer of deep temporal fascia.






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