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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 1073--1078

Influence of Sex Difference on Distribution of Risk Factors and Etiologic Subtypes of Acute Ischemic Stroke: Reality of Facts

Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Azra Zafar
Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, 2835 King Faisal Road, Dammam 34212
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.294553

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Background and Purpose: Sex-related differences have been documented in risk factors distribution, etiologic subtypes, diagnostic evaluation, offered management, and outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) from all over the world. Nevertheless, studies from Saudi Arabia are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the influence of sex on distribution of risk factors and etiologic subtype of AIS in patients admitted to our hospital. Materials and Methods: Record of patients admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University between 2010 and 2017 with ischemic stroke (IS) were reviewed. Base line characteristics, risk factors, and etiologic subtypes according to Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification were compared between men and women. Results: Among 453 patients with IS, 300 (66.2%) were men and 153 (33.7%) were women. The mean age of all patients was 61.5 ± 14.5 years. Women were older than men (P = 0.00). Hypertension (P = 0.00), atrial fibrillation (P = 0.00), and past history of stroke (P = 0.03) were more frequent in women compared to men. Fewer carotid Doppler studies (47.1 vs. 68.3%, P = 0.00) and echocardiogram (75.1 vs. 83%, P = 0.01) were done in women as compared to men. Cardioembolic etiologic subtype (26.1 vs. 17.7%) was found more frequently, whereas small vessel occlusive (23.5 vs. 31%) and large artery disease less (10.5 vs. 16.3%) frequently in women. Conclusion: Significant sex-related differences were found in risk factors and subtypes of AIS in our cohort of patients. Findings of our study are in general comparable with studies from all over the world.


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