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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 68  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 875--879

Retrospective Hospital-based Study of Opportunistic Neuroinfections in HIV/AIDS

Department of Neurology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Nehrunagar, Belagavi, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Nikhil G Panpalia
Department of Neurology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research, Nehrunagar, Belagavi - 590 010, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.293440

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Background: Patients with retroviral disease are prone to opportunistic infections (OIs) of the central nervous system which cause significant mortality and morbidity. Cryptococcosis, tuberculosis, and toxoplasma are the most commonneuroinfections occurring at all stages of the disease. Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical pattern of OIs and in-hospital mortality in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis was conducted in a teaching hospital from 2001 to2014. Clinical data, laboratory investigations, and outcome of patients with meningoencephalitis were obtainedfrom case records. Results: The total number of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS with neurological manifestations was 277, among whom 167 (60.3%) had meningoencephalitis. There were 131 malesand 36 femaleswith a male-to-female ratio of 3.63:1andage ranging from 16 to 67 years (39.25 ± 8.85 years). Clinical presentation was acute in 58%, subacute in 32%, and chronic in 10%. Symptoms includedheadache (85.8%), fever (65.7%), altered sensorium (37.1%), and seizures (25.1%). Cryptococcal meningitis was the most commoninfection (67) followed by tuberculosis (32), mixed meningitis (24), and toxoplasmosis (10), and 16 patients had progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. Pathogenic organism could not be identified in 18 patients. Fifteen patients died during hospital admission. Mortality was the highest in mixed meningitis (16.7%) followed by cryptococcal meningitis (10.4%). Opportunistic neuroinfection occurred as AIDS-defining illness in 59.3%. Prior use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy did not affect the outcome. Conclusion: Opportunistic neuroinfections are the most commonneurological manifestation in patients with AIDS, with cryptococcal meningitis being the most commonopportunistic neuroinfection occurring as AIDS-defining illness in one-third of the patients with neuro-AIDS.


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