Neurology India
menu-bar5 Open access journal indexed with Index Medicus
  Users online: 814  
 Home | Login 
About Editorial board Articlesmenu-bullet NSI Publicationsmenu-bullet Search Instructions Online Submission Subscribe Videos Etcetera Contact
  Navigate Here 
 Resource Links
  »  Similar in PUBMED
 »  Search Pubmed for
 »  Search in Google Scholar for
 »Related articles
  »  Article in PDF (820 KB)
  »  Citation Manager
  »  Access Statistics
  »  Reader Comments
  »  Email Alert *
  »  Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this Article
 »  Abstract
 »  Materials and Me...
 » Results
 » Discussion
 » Conclusion
 »  References
 »  Article Figures
 »  Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded725    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 31    

Recommend this journal


Table of Contents    
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 67  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 100-104

Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in Indian children: A systematic review and meta-analysis

1 Indian Council of Medical Research Advanced Centre for Evidence Based Child Health, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Indian Council of Medical Research Advanced Centre for Evidence Based Child Health; Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Date of Web Publication7-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Meenu Singh
Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160 012
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.253970

Rights and Permissions

 » Abstract 

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability and is of public health importance. It affects not only the child and the family. It also has direct and indirect cost implications on the nation that are incurred in providing health care, support for education, and rehabilitative services. There is a lack of evidence-based estimate of the population prevalence of ASD in India. Therefore, this systematic review was aimed at determining the prevalence of ASD in the Indian population.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published studies evaluating the prevalence of ASD in the community setting. A search within the published literature was conducted from different databases (PubMed, OvidSP, and EMBASE). The analysis of data was done using STATA MP12 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA).
Results: Four studies were included in this systematic review. Of the four included studies, one had studied both urban and rural populations, and the other three had studied the urban populations only. The study from the rural setting showed a pooled percentage prevalence of 0.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01–0.20] in children aged 1-18 years; and, four studies conducted in the urban setting showed a pooled percentage prevalence of 0.09 (95% CI 0.02–0.16) in children aged 0-15 years.
Conclusion: The scarcity of high-quality population-based epidemiological studies on ASD in India highlights an urgent need to study the burden of ASD in India. The proper acquisition of data related to the prevailing burden of ASD in India would lead to a better development of rehabilitative services in our country.

Keywords: Autism, community, prevalence, screening tool
Key Message: This review systematically analyzed data from the Indian studies to determine the community-based prevalence estimate of ASD in India. It demonstrated a relatively low prevalence estimate of ASD in the community-based setting in India compared to the published international literature. This discrepancy could be due to the lack of standardized tools for the evaluation of the disorder in the pediatric population as well as because the included studies used variable criteria in their assessment of its prevalence.

How to cite this article:
Chauhan A, Sahu JK, Jaiswal N, Kumar K, Agarwal A, Kaur J, Singh S, Singh M. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in Indian children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurol India 2019;67:100-4

How to cite this URL:
Chauhan A, Sahu JK, Jaiswal N, Kumar K, Agarwal A, Kaur J, Singh S, Singh M. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in Indian children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurol India [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Sep 23];67:100-4. Available from:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important cause of developmental disability worldwide. Its estimated prevalence is 1% in the United Kingdom and 1.5% in the United States.[1],[2] There have been various epidemiological surveys to determine the prevalence estimates of ASD during the past decade. The data based on these surveys showed an increase in the prevalence of ASD worldwide. The prevalence was estimated to be 61.9/10,000 globally in 2012.[3]

India is a populous country of nearly 1.3 billion people with children ≤15 years constituting nearly one-third of the population. It has been estimated that more than 2 million people might be affected with ASD in India.[4] Most of the reported studies on ASD are based upon hospital-based data and thus lack information on the prevalence estimates of this disorder in India.[5],[6],[7] There are only a few studies focusing on its prevalence in the community settings. Furthermore, lack of uniform application of fully validated and translated autism diagnostic tools makes it difficult to estimate the exact prevalence of ASD.[8] There is also under-recognition of the disorder due to a delay in the diagnosis of ASD at a young age.[9]

ASD not only affects the child and the family but also has direct and indirect cost implications on the nation as resources have to be utilized in providing health care, support for education, and rehabilitative services for these children.[10] There is a lack of systematic reviews focused exclusively on the prevalence of ASD in India. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the prevalence of ASD in Indian children below 18 years of age.

 » Materials and Methods Top

Search strategy

We conducted a search within the published literature from different databases (PubMed, OvidSP, and EMBASE). The searches were current as of March 2018 and we identified articles with information on the prevalence of ASD in Indian children. Our search strategy included the following search terms: ((((((”Autism” [Mesh] OR “Autistic Disorder”[Mesh] OR “Autism Spectrum Disorder”[Mesh])) AND ((((infant) OR pediatrics) OR children) OR child))) AND India)) AND prevalence [Appendix 1].

Selection of studies and data collection

We screened prospective/retrospective, cross-sectional, and cohort (hospital and community based) studies of children with ASD in the Indian population <18 years of age. The titles and abstracts of all potential studies were screened independently by three authors (AC, SS, and AA) through Covidence (, which is recommended by the Cochrane organisation and is a core component of Cochrane's review production toolkit. All the potential studies identified through Covidence were classified as either 'eligible' and 'ineligible' studies. We retrieved the full text of eligible studies, and two authors (AC and JS) independently screened the full text, identifying the studies for inclusion, and recording the reasons for exclusion of the ineligible studies. Discrepancies, if any, were resolved through discussions with the third author (MS) and her verdict was considered as being final. The reasons for exclusion of those studies which were excluded from this review are mentioned in [Figure 1]. The data extraction table was prepared to extract data from the included studies. After data extraction, the primary author entered the data into the STATA version 12.0 software. We checked for any error of the data being entered in the STATA MP12 software by comparing it with the study reports.
Figure 1: The PRISMA chart

Click here to view

Data analysis

Three authors (AC, NJ, and KKT) performed the data analysis using the STATA MP12 software. The random effect model was used to analyze the data. Subgroup analysis was done between children with ASD diagnosed in the urban and rural settings.

 » Results Top

A total of 195 studies were identified by searching through different databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid). Out of the 195 studies screened, 4 community-based studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were included in this review [Figure 1] and [Table 1].[11],[12],[13],[14]
Table 1: Characteristics of the included studies for assessing the ASD

Click here to view

ASD was diagnosed with different diagnostic tools in different populations. The choice of the best diagnostic tool leads to an enhancement in securing the specific diagnosis of ASD in the community and hospital. The various diagnostic tools used to screen and diagnose ASD in the included studies were Diagnostic Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV), Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA), and other tools listed in [Table 2]. All the studies screened and diagnosed ASD through a two-stage procedure, including the screening and confirmation of the disorder [Table 2]. All the applied tools have a similar diagnostic approach with multiple and different diagnostic questions. The four studies included in this systematic review have included the diagnostic screening of 130,599 children. Two of the studies were from South India (Kerala), one study was from Eastern India (Kolkata), and one study was from North India (Himachal Pradesh) [Table 1]. One study by Raina et al., had screened both urban and rural populations for autistic disorders.[12] The sub-group analysis was done pertaining to the rural and urban settings. Of the four included studies, the one conducted in the rural setting showed a percentage prevalence of 0.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01–0.20 in the age range of 1–18 years, and there were four studies conducted in the urban setting showing the pooled percentage prevalence of 0.09 (95% CI 0.02–0.16) in the age range of 0–15 years [Figure 2].
Table 2: Methodological details of ASD screening and evaluation among the included studies

Click here to view
Figure 2: Community-based study showing percentage prevalence of ASD in children (random effect model)

Click here to view

 » Discussion Top

This systematic review reports a relatively low percentage prevalence of ASD in both rural and urban community-based settings in India. There were surprisingly lower number of prevalence studies present in the literature, and only four studies were found eligible to be included in this review. All the enrolled studies were recently published and specifically belonged to the time period between 2014–17. However, all the four studies, which were included in this systematic review, have used a varied spectrum of diagnostic tools for screening of autism. Some studies have used a single diagnostic tool and others have used more than one diagnostic tool to diagnose autism.

Autism is a developmental disorder with an early onset in childhood.[15] There is no single screening tool that may be considered specific for the diagnosis of autism and which could be applicable worldwide. There are tools which are standardized to the local conditions and are being evaluated for their efficacy in establishing its diagnosis. Therefore, there might be an under- or over-estimation of the prevalence of ASD in different geographic distributions due to this variability in assessment. The ISAA is a locally developed standardized tool useful for the diagnosis of ASD. The ISAA includes screening questions pertaining to social relationship and reciprocity, emotional responsiveness, speech, language and communication, behavioral patterns, and has sensory and cognitive components.[16] However, it has been applied in only one study.[12] The DSM-IV has been used for the clinical evaluation of screened children in two studies.[11],[13]

In a population-based prevalence estimate from the United States, the pooled estimated prevalence of ASD was 14.6 per 1000 (1 in 68) children aged 8 years.[3] In a survey in the United Kingdom, the weighted prevalence of ASD in adults was 9.8/1000 (95% CI 3.0–16.5).[1] In our systematic review, the pooled estimate of autism varied from the rural to the urban population from 14/10,000 to 12/10,000. These figures are relatively lower than those reported from the United States and United Kingdom. Our prevalence estimates were similar to the prevalence of 8.3/10,000 in children aged 3–12 years reported from the Chinese population.[17] A recent systematic review of the South Asian (Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka) population has reported the percentage prevalence rate ranging from 0.09% to 1.07% among children in the age group of 0–17 years with ASD.[18]

A study by Nair et al., (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Kerala 16) demonstrated the highest sample size with screening of 101,438 children.[11] This study was conducted in Kerala and was aimed at diagnosing most of the developmental disabilities such as developmental delay, global developmental delay, autism, and cerebral palsy using simple and standardized screening tools.[11] There is a need for such large population-based epidemiological surveys, which will be helpful in estimating the exact burden of ASD in our country. However, Nair et al., studied children in the age range of 0–6 years, which could be responsible for the observed low prevalence in this age group as the diagnostic yield is lower in the younger age group. Poovathinal et al., reported a relatively higher prevalence which could be due to the inclusion of children upto the age range of 15 years.[11],[13] However, the population screened by Nair et al., was larger, and therefore, the study had received a higher weightage in pooled prevalence estimates of the urban subgroup. It thus provided lower estimates in the urban setting.[11]

Our systematic review had a few limitations. First, we could not perform quality assessment of the enrolled studies due to the lack of standardized and validated tools that specifically focus on the prevalence of ASD. Second, there was a heterogeneity in the methodology among the applied diagnostic tools used in the included studies, which might have led to under- or over-estimation of the prevalence data. Third, the enrolled studies were recent, and therefore, we could not perform a trend analysis of the prevalence rate. Fourth, our subgroup analysis on rural versus urban population might not have been robust because there was only one study that had included data on the prevalence of ASD in the rural setting.

 » Conclusion Top

This review systematically analyzed data from the Indian studies with the aim to determine the community prevalence estimate of ASD in India. This is a singular systematic review and it demonstrated relatively low prevalence estimates of ASD in the community-based setting in India. The conclusion should be interpreted in the context of the above-mentioned limitations. The study also highlights that there are scarce, high-quality, population-based epidemiological studies on this topic. As India is a vast country, there is an urgent need to have large population-based surveys with unified screening and diagnostic tools.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 » References Top

Brugha TS, McManus S, Bankart J, Scott F, Purdon S, Smith J, et al. Epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders in adults in the community in England. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011;68:459e66.  Back to cited text no. 1
Christensen DL, Baio J, Van Naarden Braun K, Bilder D, Charles J, Constantino JN, et al.; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence and characteristics of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 sites, United States, 2012. MMWR Surveill Summ 2016;65:1-23.  Back to cited text no. 2
Elsabbagh M, Divan G, Koh JY, Kim YS, Kauchali S, Marcin C, et al. Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. Autism Res 2012;5:160e79.  Back to cited text no. 3
Krishnamurthy V. A clinical experience of autism in India. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2008;29:331-3.  Back to cited text no. 4
Singhi P, Malhi P. Clinical and neurodevelopmental profile of young children with autism. Indian Pediatr 2001;38:384-90.  Back to cited text no. 5
Jain R, Juneja M, Sairam S. Children with developmental disabilities in India: Age of initial concern and referral for rehabilitation services, and reasons for delay in referral. J Child Neurol 2013;28:455-60.  Back to cited text no. 6
Kommu JV, Gayathri KR, Srinath S, Girimaji SC, Seshadri S, Gopalakrishna G, et al. Profile of two hundred children with autism spectrum disorder from a tertiary child and adolescent psychiatry centre. Asian J Psychiatr 2017;28:51-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
Rudra A, Banerjee S, Singhal N, Barua M, Mukerji S, Chakrabarti B. Translation and usability of autism screening and diagnostic tools for autism spectrum conditions in India. Autism Res 2014;7:598-607.  Back to cited text no. 8
Daley TC, Sigman MD. Diagnostic conceptualization of autism among Indian psychiatrists, psychologists, and pediatricians. J Autism Dev Disord 2002;32:13-23.  Back to cited text no. 9
Barnett WS, Masse LN. Comparative benefit-cost analysis of the Abecedarian program and its policy implications. Econ Educ Rev 2007;26:113-25.  Back to cited text no. 10
Nair MK, Nair HGS, Beena M, Princly P, Chandran AS, George B, et al. CDC Kerala 16: Early detection of developmental delay/disability among children below 6 years-a district model. Indian J Pediatr 2014;81(Suppl 2):S151-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
Raina SK, Kashyap V, Bhardwaj AK, Kumar D, Chander V. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders among children (1-10 years of age)-findings of a mid-term report from Northwest India. J Postgrad Med 2015;61:243-6.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Poovathinal SA, Anitha A, Thomas R, Kaniamattam M, Melempatt N, Anilkumar A, et al. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in a semiurban community in south India. Ann Epidemiol 2016;26:663-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
Rudra A, Belmonte MK, Soni PK, Banerjee S, Mukerji S, Chakrabarti B. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder and autistic symptoms in a school-based cohort of children in Kolkata, India. Autism Res 2017;10:1597-605.  Back to cited text no. 14
Kanner L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nerv Child 1943;2:217-50.  Back to cited text no. 15
Mukherjee SB, Malhotra MK, Aneja S, Chakraborty S, Deshpande S. Diagnostic accuracy of Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA) in children aged 2-9 years. Indian Pediatr 2015;52:212-6.  Back to cited text no. 16
Jin Z, Yang Y, Liu S, Huang H, Jin X. Prevalence of DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder among school-based children aged 3-12 years in Shanghai, China. J Autism Dev Disord 2018 [Epub ahead of print].  Back to cited text no. 17
Hossain MD, Ahmed HU, Jalal Uddin MM, Chowdhury WA, Iqbal MS, Kabir RI, et al. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in South Asia: A systematic review. BMC Psychiatry 2017;17:281.  Back to cited text no. 18


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Review of Progress in Diagnostic Studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Neuroimaging
Palwinder Kaur, Amandeep Kaur
Interdisciplinary Sciences: Computational Life Sciences. 2023;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Exploration of caregiver experience for children with ASD: an in-depth perspective
Neha Gupta, Manya Khanna, Rashi Garg, Vedantika Sethi, Shivangi Khattar, Purva Tekkar, Shwetha Maria, Muskan Gupta, Akash Saxena, Parul Gupta, Sara Ann Schuchert
Advances in Autism. 2023;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Exploring social stages of play through eye to I© intervention model
Sara Ann Schuchert, Shivangi Khattar, Purva Tekkar, Aastha Rathour, Savita Dawar, Parul Gupta
Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2023; : 1359104523
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Autism community priorities in diverse low-resource settings: A country-wide scoping exercise in India
Ipsita Dey, Sreerupa Chakrabarty, Rajanya Nandi, Rakshita Shekhar, Sakhi Singhi, Shoba Nayar, Jai Ranjan Ram, Shaneel Mukerji, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
Autism. 2023; : 1362361323
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Using mobile health technology to assess childhood autism in low-resource community settings in India: An innovation to address the detection gap
Indu Dubey, Rahul Bishain, Jayashree Dasgupta, Supriya Bhavnani, Matthew K Belmonte, Teodora Gliga, Debarati Mukherjee, Georgia Lockwood Estrin, Mark H Johnson, Sharat Chandran, Vikram Patel, Sheffali Gulati, Gauri Divan, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
Autism. 2023;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Comparative yield of molecular diagnostic algorithms for autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in India: evidence supporting whole exome sequencing as first tier test
Frenny Sheth, Jhanvi Shah, Deepika Jain, Siddharth Shah, Harshkumar Patel, Ketan Patel, Dhaval I Solanki, Anand S Iyer, Bhargavi Menghani, Priti Mhatre, Sanjiv Mehta, Shruti Bajaj, Vishal Patel, Manoj Pandya, Deepak Dhami, Darshan Patel, Jayesh Sheth, Harsh Sheth
BMC Neurology. 2023; 23(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Barriers to Vocational Rehabilitation in Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Series from a Tertiary Mental Health Care Institute in India
Harkishan Mamtani, Kartik Singhai, Sujai Ramachandraiah, Deepak Jayarajan, Krishna Prasad Muliyala
Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2023; : 0253717623
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Recent Update on Targeting Inflammatory Pathways with Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Ramu Singh, Anglina Kisku, Haripriya Kungumaraj, Vini Nagaraj, Ajay Pal, Suneel Kumar, Kunjbihari Sulakhiya
Biomedicines. 2023; 11(1): 115
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Possible Mechanisms of the Neuroprotective Actions of Date Palm Fruits Aqueous Extracts against Valproic Acid-Induced Autism in Rats
Abdelaziz M. Hussein, Seham Ahmed Mahmoud, Khalid Mohammed Elazab, Ahmed F. Abouelnaga, Marwa Abass, Ahmed A. H. Mosa, Mennatullah A. M. Hussein, Mohamed E. G. Elsayed
Current Issues in Molecular Biology. 2023; 45(2): 1627
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Hand grip strengthening exercises on fine motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorder
G. Mohandass, Rajeswari Muthusamy, Sivakumar Ramachandran
Fizjoterapia Polska. 2023; 23(1): 134
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Adequate Management of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children in India
Rajneesh Mahajan, Rajesh Sagar
Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Effectiveness of Evidence-based Nursing Intervention on communication and Social skill among Autism Spectrum Disorder Children and Quality of life of the parents
T. Mary Minolin, M. Benjamin Sagayaraj, R. Vijayaraghavan
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; : 4419
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Machine learning-based ABA treatment recommendation and personalization for autism spectrum disorder: an exploratory study
Manu Kohli, Arpan Kumar Kar, Anjali Bangalore, Prathosh AP
Brain Informatics. 2022; 9(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Comparing the Indian Autism Screening Questionnaire (IASQ) and the Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA) with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale–Second Edition (CARS2) in Indian settings
Satabdi Chakraborty, Triptish Bhatia, Nitin Antony, Aratrika Roy, Vandana Shriharsh, Amrita Sahay, Jaspreet S. Brar, Satish Iyengar, Ravinder Singh, Vishwajit L. Nimgaonkar, Smita Neelkanth Deshpande, Tord Ivarsson
PLOS ONE. 2022; 17(9): e0273780
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Online Psychological Assessment for Children and Adolescents with Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Exploring New Avenues in Times of Social Distancing
Meghana Vijayanand, Vijaya Raman
Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2022; : 0253717621
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Evaluation of an interprofessional collaborative practice training module for the management of children with autism spectrum disorder
Saleena Ummer Velladath, Muralidhar M. Kulkarni, Sumita Rege, Sreelakshmi Edavana Santhosh, Shivani Tiwari, Sunila John, Rashmi Nayak, Shrikiran Aroor, Seena Biju, Ciraj Ali Mohammed
Medical Journal Armed Forces India. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Nutrient intake profile, growth patterns and hemoglobin levels in children with ASD – A case control study in Mysuru, India
Seema Siddiqi, Asna Urooj
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2022; 90: 101885
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Dietary Sugar Exposure and Oral Health Status in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case-control Study
Lakshmi Moorthy, Uma B. Dixit, Rachita C. Kole, Mona P. Gajre
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2022; 52(6): 2523
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Dysfunction in Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complex I, Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Activity, and Mutations in ND1 and ND4 Gene in Autism Spectrum Disorder Subjects from Tamil Nadu Population, India
Iyer Mahalaxmi, Mohana Devi Subramaniam, Abilash Valsala Gopalakrishnan, Balachandar Vellingiri
Molecular Neurobiology. 2021; 58(10): 5303
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Autism spectrum disorder in a rural community in Bangladesh: A mid-childhood assessment
Hasmot Ali, Hafizur Rahman, Li-Ching Lee, Naila Z. Khan, Lee Shu-Fune Wu, Sucheta Mehra, Maithilee Mitra, Alain B. Labrique, Keith P. West, Parul Christian
Autism Research. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 What is autism?
Priya Joon, Anil Kumar, Milind Parle
Pharmacological Reports. 2021; 73(5): 1255
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Bridging the communication gap in autistic children, one picture at a time
Priya Meharwade, Havisha Nookala, Shweta Kajjari, Pooja Malavalli, Shivayogi M. Hugar, Chaitanya Uppin
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research. 2021; 11(4): 507
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 The Caregiver Reported Autistic Symptoms in Preschool Children: Findings of Chandigarh Autism Screening Instrument (CASI) Linked Screening from North India
Jaison Joseph, Komal Hooda, Indu Chauhan, Komal Dhull
Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice. 2021; 12(01): 200
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Autism and Emotion: A Narrative Review
Sagayaraj Kanagaraj, S. Devishrree, J. Swetha, B. Krishna Priya, Srivarshini Sankar, Jincy Cherian, C.N. Ram Gopal, S. Karthikeyan
Journal of Health and Allied Sciences NU. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 A Systematic Literature Review on the Application of Machine-Learning Models in Behavioral Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder
Nadire Cavus, Abdulmalik A. Lawan, Zurki Ibrahim, Abdullahi Dahiru, Sadiya Tahir, Usama Ishaq Abdulrazak, Adamu Hussaini
Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(4): 299
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Neuroprotective Effect of a-Mangostin in Ameliorating Propionic Acid-Induced Experimental Model of Autism in Wistar Rats
Aarti Tiwari, Rishabh Khera, Saloni Rahi, Sidharth Mehan, Hafiz Antar Makeen, Yahya H. Khormi, Muneeb U Rehman, Andleeb Khan
Brain Sciences. 2021; 11(3): 288
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Neonatal Chikungunya Presented as Apnea
Souradip Banik, Kumar Ankur, Sanjeev Chetry, Aparna Prasad
Journal of Neonatology. 2021; : 0973217921
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Studying the evolution of miasm in autism spectrum disorders: A case series
Sunita Bhanudas Nikumbh
Journal of Integrated Standardized Homoeopathy. 2020; 3: 43
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Impact of COVID-19 outbreak on mental health and perceived strain among caregivers tending children with special needs
Sapna Dhiman, Pradeep Kumar Sahu, William R. Reed, G. Shankar Ganesh, Ramesh K. Goyal, Shilpa Jain
Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2020; 107: 103790
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Effect of l-Carnosine as adjunctive therapy in the management of children with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled study
Debi Ann Abraham, Udayakumar Narasimhan, Senta Christy, Rajanandh Muhasaparur Ganesan
Amino Acids. 2020; 52(11-12): 1521
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Understanding Abnormal SMO-SHH Signaling in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Potential Drug Target and Therapeutic Goals
Saloni Rahi, Sidharth Mehan
Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Print this article  Email this article
Online since 20th March '04
Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow