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Table of Contents    
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 66  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 1672-1677

Does adjunctive corticosteroid and aspirin therapy improve the outcome of tuberculous meningitis?

Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication28-Nov-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jayantee Kalita
Department of Neurology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow - 226 014, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.246278

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 » Abstract 

Background: Stroke is common in tuberculous meningitis (TBM), and aspirin has been shown to reduce mortality. A combination of aspirin and corticosteroid may be more useful in this condition.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of aspirin and corticosteroid adjunctive therapy alone or in combination in determining the outcome of TBM.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-three patients with TBM were evaluated from a prospectively maintained registry. The diagnosis of TBM was based on the clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/computed tomography (CT), and cerebrospinal fluid criteria. The baseline clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings were noted. All patients received the standard 4-drug antituberculous (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol) treatment. Group I patients received in addition, aspirin, in the dose of 150 mg daily; group II patients received aspirin 150 mg plus prednisolone 40 mg daily; and, group III patients received none of these adjunctive therapies. The outcome at 3 months was defined in terms of death or functional disability.
Results: Group I had 44, group II had 50, and group III had 41 patients. The baseline characteristics of all these patients were similar, except in group II, where patients had more severe meningitis and focal deficits compared to the patients in group I and III. At 3 months, 32 (23%) patients died; 8 (18.2%) in group I, 9 (18%) in group II, and 14 (34.1%) in group III. There was insignificant survival benefit in group II (hazard ratio [HR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–26.49; P = 0.07). The three-month functional outcome and side effects were not significantly different in the three groups.
Conclusion: Aspirin with corticosteroid adjunctive treatment seems to be beneficial in reducing mortality in TBM.

Keywords: Antiplatelet drugs, aspirin, mortality, steroid, stroke, tuberculous meningitis
Key Message: A retrospective analysis of the adjunctive medications besides anti-tuberculous therapy that are helpful in reducing death and in improving the outcome in patients suffering from tuberculous meningitis (TBM) was conducted in three groups of patients: group I using aspirin alone; group II using a combination of both aspirin and prednisolone; and, group III without these adjunctive treatments. The survival was better in group II and group I compared to group III, however, without statistical significance. A higher proportion of patients recovered completely in group II compared to group I and group III. These effects occurred despite the presence of more severe meningitis in group II, and may have been due to an additive beneficial effect of simultaneously using both aspirin and corticosteroid as adjunctive therapy in TBM.

How to cite this article:
Misra UK, Kalita J, Sagar B, Bhoi SK. Does adjunctive corticosteroid and aspirin therapy improve the outcome of tuberculous meningitis?. Neurol India 2018;66:1672-7

How to cite this URL:
Misra UK, Kalita J, Sagar B, Bhoi SK. Does adjunctive corticosteroid and aspirin therapy improve the outcome of tuberculous meningitis?. Neurol India [serial online] 2018 [cited 2022 May 17];66:1672-7. Available from: https://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2018/66/6/1672/246278

The worldwide prevalence of tuberculosis is 159 per 100,000 population, and 35% of these patients reside in China and India. The prevalence of tuberculosis in India is 211/100,000 population, which amounts to approximately 2,532,000 patients in India.[1] Ten percent of extrapulmonary tuberculosis involves the central nervous system (CNS), which has a higher mortality and morbidity. The clinical manifestations of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are attributable to diverse pathological changes such as meningitis, encephalitis, hydrocephalus, tuberculoma, infarction, and arachnoiditis occurring at different time points in isolation or in various combinations. The treatment of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is challenging and is compounded by limited CNS penetration of antituberculous drugs, paradoxical worsening, infarction, hydrocephalus, and above all, emerging drug resistance.[2],[3],[4],[5] An unpredictable course and outcome of TBM are attributed to variations in the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a variety of host factors such as the immune status of the patient and the varied inflammatory response. In TBM, stroke has been reported in up to 60% of the patients and is associated with a poor outcome.[2],[4],[6] Stroke in TBM occurs because of involvement of the adventitia, media, and rarely intima, affecting small, medium, and large-sized vessels. Moreover, there may be stretching of blood vessels due to hydrocephalus and raised intracranial pressure (ICP); at later stages, blood vessels may be compressed by the presence of organized exudates. Corticosteroids have been used since long in this condition because of their anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects.[7],[8],[9] Thalidomide is a tumor necrotic factor (TNF) α antagonist and has been found to be effective in experimental models of TBM; however, human trials evaluating this drug had to be prematurely terminated because of its side effects.[10] Aspirin was reported to reduce mortality in TBM in an open labeled trial.[11] In children with TBM,100mg aspirin seemed to be effective in improving the outcome.[12] Corticosteroids have been found to be effective in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in reducing mortality. When the mortality and poor outcome were combined, there was, however, no significant benefit in using corticosteroids.[7] There may be a group of TBM patients who respond well to corticosteroids while the others may not.[13] There is no study comparing the role of corticosteroid and aspirin independently, and in combination, in patients with TBM. We have undertaken this study to evaluate the effect of adjunctive aspirin or aspirin plus corticosteroid in reducing death and in improving the outcome in patients suffering from TBM.

 » Materials and Methods Top

Study design

This is a retrospective analysis of TBM patients receiving adjunctive treatment; group I received aspirin alone, group II received a combination of both aspirin and prednisolone, and finally, group III was without these adjunctive treatments. The patients were selected from a prospectively maintained registry of TBM over the last 6 years. Some of these patients have been included in our earlier publications.[11],[14]

Diagnostic criteria

TBM was diagnosed on the basis of the characteristic clinical features, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination

a. The essential criteria included:

1. The symptoms of meningitis: fever, headache, and vomiting for 2 weeks or more in patients in whom malaria as well as septic and fungal meningitis were excluded.

b. Supportive criteria:

1. Cranial imaging (CT/MRI) evidence of exudate, hydrocephalus, infarction, or tuberculoma in isolation or in combination

2. Cerebrospinal fluid revealing lymphocytic pleocytosis, raised protein, and a sterile culture for bacteria and fungus

3. Evidence of extra CNS tuberculosis.

The patient was considered to be suffering from TBM if there was presence of essential criteria with any two of the supportive criteria. The presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) smear or culture, or detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and/or the presence of IgM antibody against the bacterium was considered as definite evidence of TBM.[15]

Exclusion criteria

Patients with prior antituberculous treatment for 4 weeks or more, before their enrollment in the study, or the presence of acid peptic disease, gastric hemorrhage, bleeding diathesis, liver, kidney, or heart failure, pregnancy, malignancy, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, or the history of already being on treatment with corticosteroid or antiplatelet therapy, or having a drug allergy, were excluded.

Clinical evaluation

The demographic details of the patients were recorded. The duration of illness, headache, vomiting, fever, seizures, diplopia, visual loss, and focal weakness were noted. A history of tuberculosis and HIV status were recorded. The presence of altered sensorium was noted, and the level of consciousness was assessed by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The presence of papilloedema and cranial nerve palsy were noted. The muscle tone and tendon reflexes were categorized as normal, increased, or reduced. The muscle power was graded as being normal, or having partial, or complete weakness. Evidence of extra CNS tuberculosis, such as tuberculosis of the lymph node, bone, lung, and joint, were noted. Based on the radiological findings and the GCS score, the severity of meningitis was graded into stage I (meningitis only), stage II (meningitis with focal deficit or a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 11–14), and stage III (meningitis with a GCS score <11).[16]


The blood counts, hemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum chemistry, and HIV serology were done. The electrocardiogram and radiograph of the chest were carried out. Lumbar CSF was analyzed for cell, protein, and glucose. A CSF smear was examined for bacteria and fungus, and the CSF was cultured for AFB, fungus, and other bacteria. CSF polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done for AFB and the IgM enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was done for M. tuberculosis. Cranial MRI was done using 1.5-Tesla [T] (in patients enrolled before 2010) or a 3-T scanner (Signa GE medical system, Wisconsin, USA). T1, T2, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and T1 contrast images were obtained. In critically ill patients in whom the MRI scan was not possible, a CT scan was performed. The presence of exudates, hydrocephalus, infarction, and tuberculoma were noted. The cranial MRI/CT scan was repeated at 3 months or earlier, if indicated.


The patients were treated with standard antituberculous treatment –rifampicin 10 mg/kg (maximum of 450 mg/day), isoniazid 5 mg/kg (maximum 300 mg/day), pyrazinamide 25 mg/kg (maximum 1500 mg/day), and ethambutol 15 mg/kg (maximum 800 mg/day).

Adjunctive treatment

Prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg (maximum 40 mg/day) was prescribed for 1 month and then tapered in the next 4 weeks. Aspirin was given daily after food at a dose of 150 mg in adults, and the dose was adjusted in children. In unconscious patients, these drugs were administered through a nasogastric tube. Aspirin was continued for 6 months. The patients were given the required calories, fluid, and electrolytes. Seizures were controlled by antiepileptic drugs. Raised intracranial pressure was managed by carbonic acid anhydrase inhibitor or 20% mannitol 100 ml intravenously. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt was done in patients having hydrocephalus with deteriorating consciousness.

Categorization of the patients

The patients were categorized as those belonging to group I – aspirin, group II – aspirin plus prednisolone, and group III –without these adjunctive treatments.


The patients were followed up at a 3 month interval clinically and the MRI was also repeated. Death and functional outcome after 3 months of treatment were noted. The functional outcome was assessed on a 0–20-point Barthel index (BI) scale and was categorized as poor status (BI score <12), partial recovery (BI score = 12–19) and complete recovery (BI score = 20).[17],[18] On repeat MRI, the occurrence of infarction, an increase in the preexisting lesions, and the appearance of new lesions were noted, and their presence was considered as paradoxical radiological worsening.

During the treatment, drug-induced hepatitis was noted, and in case it occurred, hepatotoxic antituberculous drugs were withdrawn and restarted when serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) levels reached below twice the normal value. The side effects of aspirin and prednisolone were also noted.

Statistical analysis

The baseline clinical, MRI, and laboratory parameters between group I, group II, and group III were compared using chi-square test for categorical variables and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables with Tuckey's corrections. On chi-square test, if the variable was significant, multiple comparisons were done. The death, functional outcome, and paradoxical response among the three treatment arms were also compared by the chi-square test, followed by multiple comparisons. The predictors of mortality were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis including the variables with the lowest P value on univariate analysis. The outcome at 3 months was also evaluated using logistic regression analysis, and the patients were categorized as having a poor (poor recovery and death) or a good outcome (partial and complete recovery). Kaplan–Meier survival estimate was used to display the survival of patients at discharge and then at 3 months in the three treatment arms. The relative risk of death in the three treatment arms was evaluated by Cox regression analysis. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 16 software and GraphPad prism 5. A variable having a two-tailed P value of <0.05 was considered significant.

 » Results Top

One hundred and thirty-five patients with TBM were included, whose median age was 32 years and 67 (49.6%) of them were female patients. The duration of illness ranged between 16 and 122 (median, 45) days. The majority of patients were in stage II [74 (54.8%)] and stage III [21 (15.6%)], and the remaining 40 (29.6%) were in stage I meningitis. Seizures were present in 45 (36%) patients, which were focal in 17 and generalized in 28. Focal weakness was present in 39 (28.9%) patients, and included hemiparesis in 30 patients, paraparesis in 7 patients, and quadriparesis and monoparesis in 1 patient each. Cranial nerves were involved in 49 (36.3%) patients, and included optic nerve involvement in 18, external ophthalmoplegia in 39, and isolated sixth nerve palsy in 20 patients. The median GCS score was 13 (range: 3–15). Consciousness was impaired in 98 (57%) patients and 10 had a GCS score <8.

The CSF findings were abnormal in all the patients; the median CSF protein level was 124 mg/dl (range, 10–495), the median sugar level was 39 mg/dl (range, 5–228), and the cell count was 125/mm3 (range, 5–1500). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done in 115 patients, computed tomographic (CT) scan in 38 patients, and either CT or MRI was performed in 134 patients. The CT/MRI findings revealed hydrocephalus in 51 (38.1%), exudates in 28 (20.9%), tuberculoma in 57 (42.5%), and infarctions in 44 (32.8%) patients.

Comparison of treatment arms

There were 44 patients in group I, 50 in group II, and 41 in group III. The age, gender, duration of illness, GCS score, seizures, cranial nerve palsy, and CSF pleocytosis were not significantly different in groups I, II, and III. There was no difference in the severity of meningitis in groups I and III, but group II patients had more severe meningitis compared to groups I and III (P = 0.002). Focal weakness was also more frequent in group II (40%) compared to group I (25%) and group III (19.5%), but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.08). The CSF protein level was higher in group III compared to group I (P < 0.001) but there was no difference between group I and group III. The details are summarized in [Table 1].
Table 1: Comparison of baseline clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings of the patients with tuberculous meningitis who received aspirin (group I), both aspirin and prednisolone (group II), and none of these medications (group III)

Click here to view


At 3 months, 31 (23%) patients died; 8 (18.2%) in group I, 9 (18%) in group II, and 14 (34.1%) in group III. Patients without adjunctive therapy (group III) had a higher mortality whereas those on aspirin with corticosteroids had lower death rates despite having more severe meningitis. The difference, however, was not statistically significant. The absolute risk reduction in group II was 16.1 and that in group I was 15.9. The number needed to treat was 6.2 each in group II and group I, respectively.

Out of 31 deaths, 24 patients died in the hospital and 7 died after discharge. The causes of death were raised intracranial pressure and brain herniation in 11, sepsis in 13, and undetermined in 7 patients. One hundred and four (77%) patients were followed up for 3 months; 38 (36.5%) had complete, 26 (25%) had partial, and 40 (38.5%) had a poor recovery. The proportion of patients with complete recovery was higher in group II (40%) compared to group I (25%) and group III (17.1%). The functional outcome, however, was not significantly different in the three groups (P = 0.09). The details of the outcome are presented in [Table 2]. On multivariate analysis, death was related to the GCS score (OR, 0.80; 95% CI,0.64–1.00; P = 0.05) after adjustment of the stage of meningitis and treatment arms. On Cox regression analysis, the survival at 3 months was better in group II after adjusting for the GCS score and the stage of TBM (HR, 1.55;95% CI, 0.96–2.49; P = 0.07) [Figure 1]. The cumulative survival at 3 months was better in the group II (combined group) followed by group I (aspirin), and group III (no adjunctive treatment). On binary multivariate logistic regression analysis, a poor outcome at 3 months was related to the admission GCS score (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62–0.96; P = 0.02] after adjusting for the stage of TBM and the adjunctive treatments given.
Table 2: Comparison of outcome of the patients with tuberculous meningitis who received aspirin (group I), both aspirin and prednisolone (group II), and none of these drugs (group III)

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Figure 1: Survival analysis using Cox regression shows the cumulative survival of tuberculous meningitis patients receiving either aspirin and prednisolone, aspirin, or no adjunctive treatment, after adjustment of covariates

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Side effects

Thirty-one patients had epigastric pain and/or vomiting, 2 had gastric hemorrhage, and 43 had drug-induced hepatitis. None of the patients had renal impairment, as evidenced by their serum creatinine level. Aspirin was withdrawn in both of those patients who had a gastric hemorrhage. Drug-induced hepatitis was more common in group II (44%) compared to group I (22.7%) and group III (26.8%) patients. In patients with drug-induced hepatitis, the hepatotoxic ATT was stopped till the liver function tests became normal, and thereafter, ATT was reintroduced sequentially. The above-mentioned side effects were not significantly different in the 3 groups [Table 3].
Table 3: Comparison of adverse events as well as the adverse effects of drugs in the patients with tuberculous meningitis who received aspirin (group I), both aspirin and prednisolone (group II), and none of these (group III)

Click here to view

 » Discussion Top

In the present study, survival was insignificantly better in group II and group I compared to group III. A higher proportion of patients recovered completely in group II (40%) compared to group I (25%) and group III (17.1%). These effects occurred despite more severe meningitis in group II, and may have been due to an additive benefit of using aspirin and corticosteroid as adjunctive therapy in TBM. This is the first report comparing the effect in patients with TBM, of administering with ATT, with either aspirin alone, or with aspirin plus prednisolone, and comparing the effect of these medications with the effects obtained in a group of patients where no adjunctive therapies were given. The role of corticosteroids in TBM has been evaluated in seven trials. In a class I study from Vietnam, 545 adult patients with TBM were randomly assigned to dexamethasone and a placebo. At the end of 6 months, there was a significant reduction in mortality in the dexamethasone group compared to the placebo group (31.8% vs 41.3%). However, on combining the numbers of patients who either died or were disabled, no significant benefit (44.2% vs 49.5%) of the dexamethasone therapy could be ascertained. In a Cochrane review, six out of seven trials favored the fact that the administration of corticosteroids resulted in reduction of mortality,[7],[9],[19],[20],[21],[22] and only one trial[23] reported a reduced mortality in the control group.[8] The pooled analysis of these trials revealed a 22% risk reduction in death, a 10% absolute risk reduction, and the number-needed-to-treat (NNT) was 10. In three trials, both death and neurological disability were reported.[7],[8],[20],[21] The largest randomized controlled trial on dexamethasone, however, did not reveal any benefit (in terms of either death or disability) in the intention-to-treat analysis. Moreover, the frequency of stroke was not reduced by administration of dexamethasone.[7]

In TBM, not only the presence of raised intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, exudates, and tuberculoma, but infarction also influences the outcome.[4] A prothrombotic state resulting in a high frequency of deep vein thrombosis has been reported in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.[24] In TBM, both increased procoagulant and decreased anticoagulant activities have been reported in 16 children with stage II and stage III meningitis. There was reduced level of protein S and fibrinolytic activity; increased factor VIII as well as plasminogen activator inhibitor; and, increased platelet count, which were more marked in the stage III than in the stage II TBM. These parameters normalized after 1 month of anti-tuberculous therapy.[25] Aspirin has antiplatelet, anti-aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties, and has been effective in the secondary prophylaxis of ischemic stroke as well as in the primary stroke prevention in women.[26],[27],[28] The antithrombotic effect of aspirin is attributable to the inhibition of thromboxane A2, which is mediated by the acetylation and inactivation of cyclo-oxygenase. In an open-labeled randomized controlled study on 118 patients with TBM, death was significantly reduced in the aspirin group compared to controls (21.7% vs 43.4%). The absolute risk reduction following aspirin was 22%. The frequency of stroke at a three -month follow-up, though lower in the aspirin group (43.3% vs 24.2%), did not achieve statistical significance.[11] In another trial on 146 children with TBM, aspirin, in dosages of 75 mg and 100 mg, was compared with a placebo. The study revealed no significant effect on death or disability. Ten percent of the patients developed hemiplegia during the follow-up period; 4% in the placebo, 9% in the low-dose, and none in the high-dose aspirin group. The group receiving high-dose aspirin had more severe meningitis and a higher proportion of hemiplegia on admission. Even then, the outcome was not worse than that found in the other groups suggesting that some beneficial effects of aspirin in TBM exist.[12] In the present study, drug induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) was more common in group II (44%) patients compared to group I (22.7%) and group III (26.8%) patients. Group II patients also had more severe meningitis. The higher frequency of DIH in group II is unlikely due to aspirin or prednisolone, as DIH improved on withdrawal of hepatotoxic antituberculous drugs.

The present study has a number of limitations; it is based on a small sample size, has a retrospective design, and has a referral bias of a tertiary care center that may have received patients in a more severe and complicated stage of the disease. However, this study for the first time compared two adjunctive therapies, and also compared these therapies with a group that was devoid of adjunctive therapy. All patients were personally evaluated by the investigators and the clinical results were further confirmed by both CT/MRI and laboratory findings.

From this study, it can be concluded that corticosteroid and aspirin combination may have a favorable role in TBM by reducing death and disability. This finding needs to be unequivocally confirmed in an randomized controlled trial.


We thank Mr. Shakti Kumar for secretarial help.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 » References Top

World Health Organization. Global Tuberculosis Report 2014. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press; 2014. [2015-02 03]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/137094/1/9789241564809_eng.pdf?ua=1. [Last accessed on 2015 Aug 10].  Back to cited text no. 1
Misra UK, Kalita J, Maurya PK. Stroke in tuberculous meningitis. J Neurol Sci 2011;303:22-30.  Back to cited text no. 2
Kalita J, Prasad S, Misra UK. Predictors of paradoxical tuberculoma in tuberculous meningitis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2014;18:486-91.  Back to cited text no. 3
Kalita J, Misra UK, Nair PP. Predictors of stroke and its significance in the outcome of tuberculous meningitis. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2009;18:251-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
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Anuradha HK, Garg RK, Agarwal A, Sinha MK, Verma R, Singh MK, et al. Predictors of stroke in patients of tuberculous meningitis and its effect on the outcome. QJM 2010;103:671-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
Thwaites GE, Nguyen DB, Nguyen HD, Hoang TQ, Do TT, Nguyen TC, et al. Dexamethasone for the treatment of tuberculous meningitis in adolescents and adults. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1741-51.  Back to cited text no. 7
Prasad K, Singh MB. Corticosteroids for managing tuberculous meningitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;23:CD002244.  Back to cited text no. 8
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Schoeman JF, Springer P, van Rensburg AJ, Swanevelder S, Hanekom WA, Haslett PA, et al. Adjunctive thalidomide therapy for childhood tuberculous meningitis: Results of a randomized study. J Child Neurol 2004;19:250-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
Misra UK, Kalita J, Nair PP. Role of aspirin in tuberculous meningitis: A randomized open label placebo controlled trial. J Neurol Sci 2010;293:12-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
Schoeman JF, Janse van Rensburg AJ, Laubscher JA Springer P. The role of aspirin in childhood tuberculous meningitis. J Child Neurol 2011;26:956-62.  Back to cited text no. 12
Torok ME, Nguyen DB, Tran TH, Nguyen TB, Thwaites GE, Hoang TQ, et al. Dexamethasone and long-term outcome of tuberculous meningitis in Vietnamese adults and adolescents. PLoS One 2011;6:e27821.  Back to cited text no. 13
Kalita J, Misra UK, Prasad S, Bhoi SK. Safety and efficacy of levofloxacin versus rifampicin in tuberculous meningitis: An open-label randomized controlled trial. J Antimicrob Chemother 2014;69:2246-51.  Back to cited text no. 14
Misra UK, Kalita J, Roy AK, Mandal SK, Srivastava M. Role of clinical, radiological, and neurophysiological changes in predicting the outcome of tuberculous meningitis: A multivariable analysis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68:300-3.  Back to cited text no. 15
British Medical Research Council. Streptomycin in tuberculosis trials committee: Streptomycin treatment of tuberculous meningitis. Lancet 1948;1:582-96.  Back to cited text no. 16
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Kalita J, Misra UK, Ranjan P. Predictors of long-term neurological sequelae of tuberculous meningitis: A multivariate analysis. Eur J Neurol 2007;14:33-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
Toole RD, Thornton GF, Mukherjee MK, Nath RL. Dexamethasone in tuberculous meningitis: Relationship of cerebrospinal fluid effects to therapeutic efficacy. Ann Intern Med 1969;70:39-48.  Back to cited text no. 19
Kumarvelu S, Prasad K, Khosla A, Behari M, Ahuja GK. Randomized controlled trial of dexamethasone in tuberculous meningitis. Tuber Lung Dis 1994;75:203-7.  Back to cited text no. 20
Schoeman JF, Van Zyl LE, Laubscher JA, Donald PR. Effect of corticosteroids on intracranial pressure, computed tomographic findings, and clinical outcome in young children with tuberculous meningitis. Pediatrics 1997;99:226-31.  Back to cited text no. 21
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Schoeman J, Mansvelt E, Springer P, van Rensburg AJ, Carlini S, Fourie E. Coagulant and fibrinolytic status in tuberculous meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007;26:428-31.  Back to cited text no. 25
Ridker PM, Cook NR, Lee IM, Gordon D, Gaziano JM, Manson JE, et al. A randomized trial of low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1293-304.  Back to cited text no. 26
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  [Figure 1]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

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[Pubmed] | [DOI]


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