| REVIEW ARTICLE
|Year : 2008 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 254--262
Exon skipping and Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Hope, hype and how feasible?
Steve D Wilton, Susan Fletcher
Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, Molecular Genetic Therapy Group, University of Western Australia, Australia
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common and serious form of childhood muscle wasting is generally caused by protein-truncating mutations in the large DMD gene. Specific removal of an exon from a defective DMD gene transcript has the potential to allow synthesis of a semi-functional dystrophin, thereby reducing the severity and presumably progression of muscle wasting. The efficacy of this treatment will vary greatly between the different mutations that preclude the synthesis of a functional dystrophin. Restoration of the reading frame from a large multi-exon genomic deletion, typically greater than 36 exons, may lead to synthesis of a protein with only partial function and limited clinical benefit, whereas excising a nonsense mutation in a redundant exon should generate a near normal dystrophin. A clinical trial has recently confirmed proof-of-principle that exclusion of Exon 51 from human dystrophin mRNAs, carrying frame-shifting deletions adjacent to this exon, results in dystrophin expression. No major side-effects after local administration of the antisense oligomer were reported. Additional trials are underway, targeting the same exon but using an oligomer of different backbone chemistry. If functional dystrophin synthesis is demonstrated, and safety issues are addressed, subsequent trials will involve systemic delivery. Great challenges are ahead, some technical; establishing an effective delivery regimen, some ethical; choosing subsequent targets for therapy, and others of an administrative and regulatory nature.
Steve D Wilton
Molecular Genetic Therapy, University of Western Australia, Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, Australian Neuromuscular Research Institute, 4th Floor "A" Block, QE II Medical Centre, Nedlands 6009, Western Australia
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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