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Year : 2005  |  Volume : 53  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 273--279

Protein aggregate myopathies


1 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Neuropathology, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany

Correspondence Address:
H H Goebel
Department of Neuropathology, Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Mainz
Germany
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.16921

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Protein aggregate myopathies (PAM) are an emerging group of muscle diseases characterized by structural abnormalities. Protein aggregate myopathies are marked by the aggregation of intrinsic proteins within muscle fibers and fall into four major groups or conditions: (1) desmin-related myopathies (DRM) that include desminopathies, a-B crystallinopathies, selenoproteinopathies caused by mutations in the, a-B crystallin and selenoprotein N1 genes, (2) hereditary inclusion body myopathies, several of which have been linked to different chromosomal gene loci, but with as yet unidentified protein product, (3) actinopathies marked by mutations in the sarcomeric ACTA1 gene, and (4) myosinopathy marked by a mutation in the MYH-7 gene. While PAM forms 1 and 2 are probably based on impaired extralysosomal protein degradation, resulting in the accumulation of numerous and diverse proteins (in familial types in addition to respective mutant proteins), PAM forms 3 and 4 may represent anabolic or developmental defects because of preservation of sarcomeres outside of the actin and myosin aggregates and dearth or absence of other proteins in these actin or myosin aggregates, respectively. The pathogenetic principles governing protein aggregation within muscle fibers and subsequent structural sarcomeres are still largely unknown in both the putative catabolic and anabolic forms of PAM. Presence of inclusions and their protein composition in other congenital myopathies such as reducing bodies, cylindrical spirals, tubular aggregates and others await clarification. The hitherto described PAMs were first identified by immunohistochemistry of proteins and subsequently by molecular analysis of their genes.






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